Education in Uzbekistan.The level of education in Uzbekistan corresponds to the parameters that are typical for the leading states of the world. Ninety-nine percent of country's population is literate; the principle of general 9-year education is still preserved. Judging by the indices of educational level, Uzbekistan is among the leading countries of the world. The country has managed to preserve the state system of training specialists, thus ensuring wide access to education for all strata of the population. The reform of educational system and training the national specialists is a state priority, that is embodied in the National Program on training the personnel and the Law on Education.
In the sector of pre-school education the network of home kindergarten and complexes of "kindergarten - school" has been formed, as well as 800 groups, where children can take up art, music, foreign languages and basis of computerization. Over 400 academic lyceums, secondary schools and colleges have been formed at the expense of state investments. On the basis of the Decree issued by President Islam Karimov, On Establishing New Institutions of Higher Learning, dated February 28, 1992, a number of new universities and their branches was founded in the country. In 1997 the government of Uzbekistan started holding the second stage of reforms in the field of education. At present, any school can choose that program, which more completely meets its requirements and type of teaching, which means a partial decentralization in the system of education. The Asian Bank for Development allotted its credit to the government estimated at US $ 40 million to purchase new text-books for schools and US $50 million for the development of professional institutions network.
The National Program of Training
The National Program of training specialists and the Law on Education have laid the foundation for reformations of the educational system in Uzbekistan. The National Program is oriented to the formation of a new generation of experts with high professional and general culture distinguished for their creative and social activity. The program, among other things, stipulates the formation of absolutely new structures - the academic lyceums and colleges. On February 24, 1998, the Cabinet of Ministers adopted a special decree on organizing lyceums, colleges and their management. The reason for the formation of them lies in the fact that students will acquire not only basic but also specialized knowledge on certain disciplines for further training in an institution of higher learning. Within 3 years boys and girls master 2-3 professions. Today there are over 400 academic lyceums and professional colleges in the republic. There are 246 specialized secondary schools where 250,000 students master 170 specialties.
Great attention is paid in the republic to the improvement of educational system and training of qualified specialists. On the basis of the president's decree dated February 28, 1992, twenty-four new institutions of higher learning and their branches to train specialists for principle branches of the national economy were established. Today there are 59 institutions of higher learning function in the republic, including 16 universities, 39 teacher training institutes, medical, technical, economic, agricultural, and other institutes. About 300 thousand students master 276 specialties there. The oldest higher Institutions in Uzbekistan are the National University named after Ulugbek (in past: first - Middle Asian, than Tashkent State University), the Technical Institute ( Polytecnical Institute). Since 1991 the number of higher educational institutions has increased by 30 %. New higher educational institutions have appeared: the University of World Economy and Diplomacy, Academy of State and Public Structuring, Academy of Armed Forces, Academy of Ministry of Internal Affairs.
The Academy of State and Social Construction
The academy was set up in April 1995; it is the main institution for training, retraining and raising the level of state employees, government officials, and economic structure experts. The academic education is aimed at the formation in students of modern thinking, great erudition, and competence, initiative and creative approach towards the solution of a problem. There are three faculties at the Academy: the Faculty of State and Public Structuring (training term is 10 months), the Faculty of Bases and Principles of Market Economy (Training term is 10 months), and the Faculty of Intergovernmental Relations and Foreign Economic Ties (Training term is 12.5 months).